Sources and external links

... by Liz C./Threnody works - My horse forum

Chondrodysplasia-Like Dwarfism in the Miniature Horse, John Eberth 2013

Dwarfism in the Miniature Horse, John Eberth (Older powerpoint)

Skeletal Atavism in a Miniature Horse, Reid Tyson, DVM, John P. Graham, MVB, MSC, Patrick T. Colahan, DVM, Clifford R. Berry, DVM

Genome-wide SNP association-based localization of a dwarfism gene in Friesian dwarf horses. Orr N, Back W, Gu J, Leegwater P, Govindarjan P, Conroy J, DUcro B, Van Arendonk JA, MacHugh DE, Ennis S, Hill EW, Brama PA.

Dwarfism in the Friesian Warmblood and Friesian horse, an article written by the Australian Warmblood Friesian Association. Includes details on dwarfism history in the friesian breed.

Clinical Commentary, The Friesian horse breed: A clinical challenge to the equine veterinarian?, S.Boerma, W. Back†‡ and M.M. Solet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan*†

The Drost Project. A veterinary website with information and images on various livestock reproductive issues. Has images of a severe ACAN dwarf mini foal with rotated malformed legs, and a stillborn dwarf who may have been some form of D1. These images located under Equine Reproduction > Teratology > Congenital Anomalies.

Tifrons the dwarf friesian filly. Website and owner's account of Tifron's life and details on managing her condition, mobility, and comfort.

Little Magic Shoes. A website run by Jill Jensen that chronicles experiences with aiding dwarf minis' mobile needs. Jill owns and has cared for many various types of dwarf minis.

Dobby an ACAN dwarf mini. This page has photographs and shares details on his care, dental procedures, special farriery needs, and a facial surgery performed to allow him to breath better. This page shows the dedication and extreme care required for owning severely affected dwarfs.

JCP Miniatures. A website about Julia's dwarf horses and experiences with them. Helped obtain visual example of non-dwarf ACAN and SA carrying mini. Many images and examples were provided by her to further educate others on this equine disorder.

A Tiny Cautionary Tale. Information on miniature horse and mini donkey dwarfism. Contains information to help with donkey dwarfism research.

Love Long Ears. A miniature donkey website with silhouettes of visually identified dwarf donkeys. Also contains pages on measuring for disproportion and dwarfism identification.

Case Story Romeo. A story about a dwarf donkey named Romeo and the identification of his disorder.

Sincere thanks to Ellen Dahlstet for sending information on donkey dwarfism research.

Special thanks to all of the researchers and dwarf owners and who have helped bring about their experiences with these equines to the forefront.

... by Marleen binder

Eberth_Multiple alleles of ACAN associated with chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Miniature horses
J. E. Eberth, K. T. Graves, J. N. Mac Leod and E. Bailey
Department of Veterinary Science, MH Gluck Equine Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, USA
Eberth_et_al-2018-Multiple Alleles of AC
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 282.8 KB
Large Deletions at the SHOX Locus in the Pseudoautosomal Region are associated with Skeletal Atavism in Shetland ponies
Nima Rafati1†, Lisa S Andersson2†, Sofia Mikko2†, Chungang Feng1, Terje
Raudsepp3, Jessica Pettersson1, Jan Janecka3, Ove Wattle4, Adam Ameur5, Gunilla
Thyreen2, John Eberth6, John Huddleston7,8, Maika Malig7,8, Ernest Bailey6, Evan E.
Eichler7,8, Göran Dalin9, Bhanu Chowdary10, Leif Andersson1,2,3, Gabriella Lindgren 2
and Carl-Johan Rubin1*
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 2.7 MB
Case report - Phenotypic diagnosis of dwarfism in six Friesian horses
Equine Veterinary Journal, Equine vet. J. (2008) 40 (3) 282-287, doi: 10.2746/042516408X278201
W. Back*, J. J. van der Lugt, P.G. J. Nikkels, A. J. M. Van den Belt, J.H. Van der Kolk and T. A. E. Stout
Back et al. EVJ 2008.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 457.6 KB
Clinical Commentary The Friesian horse breed: A clinical challenge to the equine veterinarian?
Equine Veterinary Education, Equine vet. Edu (2012) 24 (2) 66-71, doi: 10.111/j.2042-3292.2011.00302.x
S. Boerma, W. Back and M. M. Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan
Boerma et al. EVE 2012.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 3.7 MB
Papers - Normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary growth axis in three dwarf Friesian foals
E. de Graaf-Roelfsema, W. Back, H. A. Keizer, T. A. E. Stout, J. H. van der Kolk
De Graaf et al. Vet Rec 2009.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 223.8 KB
Effect of differences in tendon properties on functionality of the passive stay apparatus in horses
Sander W.S. Gussekloo, PhD; Jerta Lankester, MSc; Wim Kerten, Willem Back, DVM, PhD
Gussekloo et al. AJVR 2011.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 287.7 KB
UK Knowledge University of Kentucky, Chondroplasia-like dwarfism in the miniature horse
2013, John E. Eberth, theses and dissertations-veterinary science
Chondrodysplasia-Like Dwarfism in the Miniature
Chondrodysplasia-Like Dwarfism in the Mi
Adobe Acrobat Dokument 1.7 MB

G3 Magazine, May 2016


The hoof blog, 3. June 2016


KFPS, Royal Friesian, DNA test available for members


UK Ag, Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, Animal Genetic Testing & Research Laboratory, Testing Service


Capilet Genetics, Skeletal Atavism Test ™


Universität Utrecht



UC Davies Veterinary Medicine, Dexter Genetic Tests


Thumbelina, the world´s smallest horse, Goose Creek Farms, Missouri, USA


guinessworldrecords, smallest living horse, female


An Impossibly Small Horse Has Broken World Records – And Will Steal Your Heart


Einstein, the world´s smallest stallion, Washington, USA, smallest horse – world record set by Einstein Horse


Einstein – The Smallest Horse, Guiness World Records, Big Picture, Odd Stuff, criteria to get an entry as smallest horse in the guiness world records with age 4


Roozer Brews, Roo, A mini with a heart larger than himself


“Roozer Brewz – kämpft sich durch” bei”, Roozer ist auf FAcebook ein kleiner Star. Doch im Alltag hat das Miniaturpferd zu kämpfen.


Roozer Brews – Mini Horse with Wheelchair, looks adorable while learning to walk, by Philip Ross on June 25, 2013


Wolfscastle UK, Miniature horses for your celebration, Home of ACER the little one on Amazon Prime TV ad.


Britain´s smallest steed? Acer the rare dwarf horse is even tinier than the average pet dog


 Equine Dental Vets, Koda – Australia´s Smallest Horse, Video 2013


Mail Online, Short on Luck: Meet Koda the miniature horse… who was also born a dwarf, 2009


Ciuciu, mini horse, by Blanka´s miniature horses, Poland



Mrs. Marleen Binder

RIP: Daisy, skeletal atavism dwarf, 2006
RIP: Daisy, skeletal atavism dwarf, 2006